Review Article

How to break bad news?: Systematic Review

Sam Hajialiloo Sami, Azra Izanloo , Amir Mohamad Arefpour, Masoud Mirkazemi

Sam Hajialiloo Sami
Bone and Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Shafa Orthopedic Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Azra Izanloo
Razavi Cancer Research Center, Razavi Hospital, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad,Iran. Email: a.izanloo64@gmail.com

Amir Mohamad Arefpour
Firrozgar Hospital,Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Masoud Mirkazemi
Bone and Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Shafa Orthopedic Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
Online First: December 31, 2018 | Cite this Article
Hajialiloo Sami, S., Izanloo, A., Arefpour, A., Mirkazemi, M. 2018. How to break bad news?: Systematic Review. The Cancer Press 4(1,2,3,4): 13-24. DOI:10.15562/tcp.69


Purpose:

We conducted a systematic review of studies that focus on existing protocols for oncologists and other physicians who are in touch with cancer patients.

Method:

We searched all internationally published articles on the introduction of a protocol as the guideline. To this purpose, we did a thorough search of Pubmed and Cochrane Collaboration Library databases and reviewed all articles from 2010 to 2017.

Results:

We introduced 7 papers from 7 countries and evaluated their proposed protocols. A primary protocol called SPIKES had been discussed in most studies. This protocol emphasized the six steps of setting, perception, invitation, knowledge, empathy and summary.

Conclusion:

 BBN is a balanced action that requires oncologists and other specialists to consistently adapt to its different criteria. Developing the ability to personalize and adapt to therapeutic treatment with respect to communications can be a major step forward in the training and exercises that physicians receive in connection to communication skills.

References

Jameel A, Noor SM, Ayub S. Survey on perceptions and skills amongst postgraduate residents regarding breaking bad news at teaching hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2012;62(6):585-9.

Tavakol M, Torabi S, Lyne OD, Zeinaloo AA. A quantitative survey of intern knowledge of communication skills: an Iranian exploration. BMC Med Educ. 2005; 5: 6.

Ozdogan M, Samur M, Bozcuk HS, Coban E, Artac M, Savas B, et al. Do not tell: what factors affect relatives attitudes to honest disclosure of diagnosis to cancer patients? Support Care Cancer. 2004;12: 497-502.

Hanratty B, Lowson E, Holmes L,Grande G, Jacoby A, Payne Sh,et al. Breaking bad news sensitively: what is important to patients in their last year of life? BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care. 2012; 2 (1):24-28.

Fujimori M, Akechi T, Uchitomi Y. Factors associated with patient preferences for communication of bad news. Palliat Support Care. 2017;15(3):328-335.

Buckman R. Communication skills in palliative care: a practical guide. Neurol Clin. 2001;19 (4):989–1004.

Stewart MA. Effective physician-patient communication and health outcomes: a review. CMAJ. 1995;152 (9):1423–33.

Haskard-Zolnierek, KB, DiMetteo MR. Physician communication and patient adherence to treatment: a meta-analysis. Med Care. 2009; 47(8):826–834.

Jacques AP, Adkins EJ, Knepel S, Boulger C, Miller J, Bahner DP. Educating the delivery of bad news in medicine: Preceptorship versus simulation. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2011; 1(02):121–124.

Vail L, Sandhu H, Fisher J, Cooke H, Dale J, Barnett M. Hospitalconsultants breaking bad news with simulated patients: an analysis of communication using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Patient Educ Couns. 2011; 83(02):185–194.

Ramirez AJ, Graham J, Richards MA, et al. Burnout and psychiatric disorder among cancer clinicians. Br J Cancer. 1995; 71:1263–9.

Taylor C, Graham J, Potts HW, et al. Changes in mental health of UK hospital consultants since the mid-1990s. Lancet. 2005;366:742–4.

Back AL, Arnold RM, Baile WF, et al. Approaching diffi cult communication tasks in oncology. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55:164–77.

Pang Y, Tang L, Zhang Y, Song L, Goelz T, Fritzsche K, et al. Breaking bad news in China: implementation and comparison of two communication skills training courses in oncology. Psychooncology. 2015;24(5):608-11.

Setubal MSV, Gonçalves AV, Rocha SR, Amaral EM. Breaking Bad News Training Program Based on Video Reviews and SPIKES Strategy: What do Perinatology Residents Think about It?Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2017. Aug 4.

Seifart C, Hofmann M, Bär T, Riera Knorrenschild J, Seifart U, Rief W. Breaking bad news-what patients want and what they get: evaluating the SPIKES protocol in Germany.Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(3):707-11.

Stiefel F, Barth J, Bensing J, et al. Communication skills training in oncology: a position paper based on a consensus meeting among European experts in 2009. Ann Oncol. 2010; 21 (2):204–7.

Dunning R, Laidlaw A. The application of the Practitioners in Applied Practice Model during breaking bad news communication training for medical students: a case study. Scott Med J. 2015; 60(4):170-5.

Narayanan V, Bista B, Koshy Ch .‘BREAKS’ Protocol for Breaking Bad News. Indian J Palliat Care. 2010; 16(2): 61–65.

Ngwenya N, Farquhar M,Ewing G. Sharing bad news of a lung cancer diagnosis: understanding through communication privacy management theory.Psychooncology. 2016; 25(8):913-8.

Zekri J, Karim S.M. Breaking Cancer Bad News to Patients With Cancer: A Comprehensive Perspective of Patients, Their Relatives, and the Public—Example From a Middle Eastern Country. J Glob Oncol. 2016; 2(5): 268–274.

Ishaque S, Saleem T, Khawaja FB, Qidwai W. Breaking bad news: exploring patient's perspective and expectations. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010; 60(5):407-11.

Sweeny K, Falkenstein A. Is Waiting the Hardest Part? Comparing the Emotional Experiences of Awaiting and Receiving Bad News.Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2015;41(11):1551-9

F. Bailea, Buckmanb R, Lenzia R, Globera G, A. Bealea E, P. Kudelka A. SPIKES—A Six-Step Protocol for Delivering Bad News: Application to the Patient with Cancer. The Oncologist August. 2000; 5(4): 302-311.

Aljubran AH. The attitude towards disclosure of bad news to cancer patients in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2010; 30(2):141-144.

Makoul G. The SEGUE Framework for teaching and assessing communication skills.Patient Educ Couns. 2001; 45(1):23-34.

Beale EA, Baile WF, Aaron J. Silence is not golden: communicating with children dying from cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(15):3629-31.

Rosenbaum ME, Ferguson KJ, Lobas JG. Teaching medical students and residents skills for delivering bad news: a review of strategies. Acad Med. 2004;79(2):107-17.

A. Buckman R. Breaking bad news: the S-P-I-K-E-S strategy. Commun Oncol. 2005; 2: 138-42.

Teike Lüthi F, Cantin B. Breaking bad news: ‘EPICES’, a French style as a learning method. Rev Med Suisse. 2011; 12: 85–87.

Wand S, Schildmann J, Burchardi N et al. Die Aufklärungsgesprächbewertungsskala (AGBS): Ein Instrument zur Bewertung kommunikativer Kompetenzen bei der Aufklärung von Patienten über Tumorerkrankungen. Z ärztl Fortbild Qual Gesundh. 2008; wes 101: 645–651

F. BAILE W. Giving Bad News. The oncologist. 2015; 20:852–853.

Orlander JD, Fincke G, Hermanns D, Johnson GA. Medical residents, first clearly remembered experiences of giving bad news. J Gen Intern Med. 2002; 17: 825-31.

Common Program Requirements: ACGME competencies. Accredition Council for Graduate Medical Education. 2011.

General Medical Council. Tomorrow's Doctors: Outcomes and standards for undergraduate medical education. London. 2009.

Back AL, Arnold RM, Baile WF, Fryer Edwards KA, Alexander SC, Barley GE, et al. Efficacy of communication skills training for giving bad news and discussing transitions to palliative care. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167: 453-60.

Baile WF, Buckman R, Lenzi R, Glober G, Beale E, Kudelka AP. SPIKES - Asix-step protocol for delivering bad news: application to the patient with cancer. Oncologist. 2000; 5: 302-11.

Back AL, Arnold RM, Baile WF, Fryer Edwards KA, Alexander SC, Barley GE, et al. Efficacy of communication skills training for giving bad news and discussing transitions to palliative care. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167: 453-60.

Ungar L, Alperin M, Amiel GE, Beharier Z, Reis S. Breaking bad news: structured training for family medicine residents.Patient Educ Couns. 2002; 48(1):63-8.


Article Views      : 43
PDF Downloads : 22