Original Article

Androgen Receptor (AR) Based Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Metastasis: A Biological Perspective

Muhammad Ali Naseer , Sara Ali

Muhammad Ali Naseer
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: mali855@yahoo.com

Sara Ali
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Online First: July 01, 2017 | Cite this Article
Ali Naseer, M., Ali, S. 2017. Androgen Receptor (AR) Based Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Metastasis: A Biological Perspective. The Cancer Press 3(2): 50-66. DOI:10.15562/tcp.46


Androgen receptor (AR) is a nuclear transcription factor and a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily of genes, which is abundantly expressed in neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal tissues and the male genitourinary system. Neoplastic cells have to perpetuate the androgen receptor (AR)-mediated dynamics by a wide range of integrated pathways that crosstalk at various levels and it ensures the robust expression and activation of AR-mediated genes. There are multidirectional pathways opted for by the AR to meet the demands of a desperate cancer-prone environment. Interference with these histone demethylases with siRNA or pharmacological inhibitors leads to distinct changes in histone marks at AR target promoters. Several inhibitors such as CaMKII inhibitor have been found to have a broader effect on apoptosis than just their inhibition which also resulted in the inhibition of AR activity and induces p53-independent apoptosis, inhibits anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, upregulates pro-apoptotic protein PUMA and generates ROS.

 

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