Fahimeh Faghihi Moghadam, Mohsen Bakhshandeh, Hüseyin Sahinbas
Hyperthermia refers to elevation tumor temperature from 39 up to 43 degree Celsius. Actually Therapeutic Hyperthermia has been used as an adjuvant treatment for cancer, since end of the 19th century after observations William Coley who found that tumor is diminished after induction of fever by bacterial toxins. Hyperthermia therapy refers to treatment tumors through heating which has been used since the time of the ancient Egyptians. The term ‘Hyperthermia’ in oncology means treatment of malignant disease by heating in different ways. Hyperthermia is usually applied as an adjuvant therapy method in combination with other modalities such as Radiotherapy or Chemotherapy in cancer treatment. Typically there are three categories for Hyperthermia, including local, regional and whole body. Based on the temperature Whole body hyperthermia classify in 3 type, mild, fever range and extreme. In Mild hyperthermia, the temperature is from 37.5 up to 38.5 degree Celsius, in fever range hyperthermia, 38.5 up to 40 degree Celsius, and extreme hyperthermia, the temperature above 40 degree Celsius. Now Days Whole body hyperthermia known as immunotherapy related to cancer treatment in oncology. Here we will review whole body hyperthermia related to cancer treatment.
Immunity is controlled by a network of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), the most important of which are known as dendritic cells (DC). Dendritic cells are professional APCs that are designed to activate T cells toward various antigens, such as tumor-associated antigens, due to their potent co-stimulatory activity. They play a crucial role of constantly sampling the microenvironment for ‘danger signals’, which include inflammatory signals and pathogens. The availability of large numbers of DC, generated either from hematopoietic progenitor cells or monocytes, holds great promise in the development of cancer immunotherapy as well as the treatment of autoimmune diseases and suppressing several viruses. Accordingly, appropriately pulsed or transfected DC may be used for vaccination in the field of infectious diseases or tumor immunotherapy to induce antigen-specific T cell responses. Unlike infectious pathogens, tumors do not induce an effective inflammatory response suitable for optimal activation of DCs, and as a result the immune response is weak and ineffective. The primary purpose of vaccinating individuals with cancer is to overcome this flaw by channeling tumor antigens into DCs and providing the conditions for their optimal maturation into potent immunostimulatory APCs. This article will focus specifically on the use of DCs as vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. We will examine DC biology, preclinical and clinical studies and finally efforts to improve current vaccine formulations.
Seyed Mohammad Amin Kormi, Shima Ardehkhani, Amir Azizi, Mina Bakhshali Nezhad, Samaneh Heidarzade, Fatemeh Karimi, Pedram Zolfaghari
MiRNAs play an important role as oncogenes and tumor suppressors in induction and suppression of tumor effects. Also in different stages of cancer therapy. High and low expression of some miRNAs could be used as factors for prognosis patients drug resistant. Regulation of these miRNA perform by some other miRNA that can suppression or active the translation of downstream miRNA, Therefore, miRNAs play important role in the individual treatments and classification of miRNA in diagnosis and prognosis is highly valuable, also we could consider miRNA as a setting key for switching and off of genes.
Definitely, gene therapy is considered as a great and fundamental change and evolution in the treatment of many genetic diseases (1). In cancer Gene therapy, especially in breast cancer, have had a tremendous and increasing growth and development and has seriously shifted from the theoretical range of works to the practical and clinical field (2). Some of the methods that are currently used to treat breast cancer, including Chemotherapy (3), Radiation Therapy (4), Surgery, Hormone Therapy (5), and Laser Therapy; however, these methods have some side effects for the patients. But there are some modern molecular methods, which are used in gene therapy (6). These methods are including Oncolytic Viruses, Suicide Gene, Anti-angiogenesis (7), Tumor Suppressor Genes, Immunotherapy (8), and Antisense Targeting that are considered to be utilized for the treatment of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer type observed among women (9,10).
Utilizing suitable viral and non-viral carriers, by selection and design of suitable carriers, the target gene can be selectively introduced into the cells or a specific gene can be made off of the cells; the work which has a very effective role in the treatment process. Results Gene therapy is very useful not only in the field of complete treatment for cancer, but also in the exact and early diagnosis, and moreover in the prognosis of cancer diseases.
Gene therapy has made a great evolution to the future of treatment process, and especially of cancer treatment and is an important step towards Personalized Medicine. However, many questions have been remained unanswered in this context (10).
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